IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies
September 9-12, 2002
Kazan, Russia

Local attractions
Part I

Kazan, which like Rome stands on seven hills, is the capital of the ancient people and country whose names, though familiar, are shrouded in misconceptions. The people are the Kazan Tatars; the country is Tatarstan. Situated, as a result of historical circumstances, in the very heart of Russia, only eight hundred kilometres to the east of Moscow, Kazan is the capital of a multi-national republic that occupies the area between the Volga and the Ural Mountains. The Tatars have their own language, their own culture, their own age-old traditions and festivals, their own faith.

Kazan, 10-21 centuries
Azimov Mosque. Was erected in 1887-90
In 1825, projected by architect P.G.Pyatnitzky, was built the main building of Kazan University. Construction of the campus, as well as providing one by all necessary equipment for carrying out scientific researches and educational activity, was made under guidance of N.I.Lobachevsky, rector of the University during 1827-1846.

Volga Bulgaria, Bolgar, Spassky district
Volga Bulgaria - the feudal state formed on the verge of IX-X centuries in Middle Volga region. The main population was bulgars - immigrants from Azov region, who conquered the native Finno-Ugrians and Turkish-speaking tribes. The largest towns Bolgar and Buljar in area and population surpassed London, Paris, Kiev, Novgorod and Vladimir of that time.
"Black Chamber" Mosque in Bolgar (XIV century)
Volga Bulgaria exported to Middle Asia, China, Vizantium, Russia the fur, timber, leather footwear, arms and other handmade goods. The capital of Volga Bulgaria town Bolgar in X-XIV centuries was built of stone and brick. Already the public water supply was here. Nowadays remained the ruins of "The Black Chamber" Mosque, Minor Minaret, Khan's Tomb, Northern Mausoleum, Cathedral Mosque.

Sviyazhsk city, 16-20 centuries, Zelenodolsk district
Sviyazhsk is an ancient fortress, built in 1551 by famous Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible for the siege of Kazan. Building of Sviyazhsk is an outstanding event in the history of Russian town-planning. Cut in the forests of central Russia before one-thousands kms from this place, it was pulled down and delivered on rafts by Volga to the mouth of Sviyaga-river (25 kms far from Kazan) and assembled here in 4 weeks, only. Sviyazhsk-fortress became the first-class fortification construction of its time. Beginning from the second half of the XVI century and till the end of the XVII century Sviyazhsk was the administrative, trade and Christian center of Russians to the East of the State.
Sviyazhsk. Engraving on the painting of Mikhaeva. Middle of 18 century.


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